2. Raine NE, Blechschmidt L (2021) Advancing Canadian agriculture by supporting ecological goods and services. A discussion paper developed and presented by the Arrell Food Institute at the University of Guelph. 26 pages.

1. Pindar A, Mullen EK, Tonge MB, Guzman-Novoa E, Raine NE (2017) Status and Trends of Pollinator Health in Ontario. University of Guelph report prepared for Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA). 238 pages.

Peer-reviewed Journal Articles

86. Rondeau S, Raine NE (2022) Fungicides and bees: a review of exposure and risk. Environment International: in press.

85. Mundy-Heisz KA, Prosser RS, Raine NE (2022) Acute oral toxicity and risks of exposure to the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, and other classes of systemic insecticide, for the Common Eastern Bumblebee (Bombus impatiens)Chemosphere 295: 133771.

84. Allen-Perkins A, Magrach A, Dainese M, Garibaldi LA, Kleijn D, Rader R, Reilly JR, Winfree R, Lundin O, McGrady CM, Brittain C, Biddinger DJ, Artz DR, Elle E, Hoffman G, Ellis JD, Daniels J, Gibbs J, Campbell JW, Brokaw J, Wilson JK, Mason K, Ward KL, Gundersen KB, Bobiwash K, Gut L, Rowe L, Boyle NK, Williams NM, Joshi N, Rothwell N, Gillespie RL, Isaacs R, Fleischer SJ, Peterson SS, Rao S, Pitts-Singer TL, Fijen T, Boreux V, Rundlöf M, Viana BF, Klein A-M, Smith HG, Bommarco R, Carvalheiro LG, Ricketts TH, Ghazoul J, Krishnan S, Benjamin FE, Loureiro J, Castro S, Raine NE, de Groot GA, Horgan FG, Hipólito J, Smagghe G, Meeus I, Eeraerts M, Potts SG, Kremen C, García D, Miñarro M, Crowder D, Pisanty G, Mandelik Y, Vereecken NJ, Leclercq N, Weekers T, Lindstrom SAM, Stanley DA, Zaragoza-Trello C, Nicholson CC, Scheper J, Rad C, Marks EAN, Mota L, Danforth B, Park M, de Melo Bezerra AD, Freitas BM, Mallinger R, da Silva FO, Willcox B, Ramos DL, da Silva e Silva FD, Lázaro A, Alomar D, González-Estévez MA, Taki H, Cariveau DP, Garratt MPD, Jodar DNN, Stewart RIA, Ariza D, Pisman M, Lichtenberg EM, Schüepp C, Herzog F, Entling MH, Dupont YL, Michener CD, Daily GC, Ehrlich PR, Burns KLW, Vilà M, Robson A, Howlett B, Blechschmidt L, Jauker F, Schwarzbach F, Nesper M, Diekötter T, Wolters V, Castro H, Gaspar H, Nault BA, Badenhausser I, Peterson JD, Tscharntke T, Bretagnolle V, Willis Chan DS, Chacoff NP, Andersson GKS, Jha S, Colville JF, Veldtman R, da Encarnação Coutinho JD, Biachi FJJA, Sutter L, Albrecht M, Jeanneret P, Zou Y, Averill AL, Mackenzie KE, Saez A, Sciligo A, Vergara CH, Bloom EH, Badano EI, Loeb G, Grab H, Ekroos J, Gagic V, Cunningham SA, Åström J, Cavigliasso P, Trillo A, Classen A, Mauchline AL, Montero-Castaño A, Wilby A, Woodcock BA, Sidhu CS, Steffan-Dewenter I, Vogiatzakis IN, Herrera JM, Otieno M, Gikungu MW, Cusser S, Nauss T, Nilsson L, Greenleaf SS, Knapp J, Ortega J, González JA, Osborne JL, Blanche R, Shaw RF, Hevia V, Stout J, Arthur AD, Blochtein B, Szentgyorgyi H, Li J, Mayfield MM, Woyciechowski M, Nunes-Silva P, de Oliveira RH, Henry S, Simmons BI, Dalsgaard B, Hansen K, Sritongchauy T, O’Reilly AD, García FJC, Parra GN, Pigozo CM, Bartomeus I (2021) CropPol: a dynamic, open and global database on crop pollination. Ecology e3614. doi:10.1002/ecy.3614.

83. Willis Chan DS, Raine NE (2021) Phenological synchrony between the hoary squash bee (Eucera pruinosa) and culitvated acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo) flowering is imperfect at a northern siteCurrent Research in Insect Science 1: 100022. 

82. Wilcox AAE , Newman AEM, Raine NE, Mitchell GW, Norris DR (2021) Captive-reared monarchs tracked in the wild show southward migration: reply to Davis (2021). Conservation Physiology 9: coab064. doi:10.1093/conphys/coab064

81. Evans LJ, Smith KE, Raine NE (2021) Odour learning bees have longer foraging careers than non-learners in a natural environment. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9: 676289. doi:10.3389/fevo.2021.676289

80. Willis Chan DS, Raine NE (2021) Hoary squash bees (Eucera pruinosa: Hymenoptera: Apidae) provide abundant and reliable pollination services to Cucurbita crops in Ontario (Canada). Environmental Entomology nvab045. doi:10.1093/ee/nvab045

79. Wilcox AAE , Newman AEM, Raine NE, Mitchell GW, Norris DR (2021) Captive-reared migratory monarch butterflies show natural orientation when released in the wildConservation Physiology 9: coab032. doi:10.1093/conphys/coab032

78. Willis Chan DS, Raine NE (2021) Population decline in a ground-nesting solitary squash bee (Eucera pruinosa) following exposure to a neonicotinoid insecticide treated crop (Cucurbita pepo). Scientific Reports 11: 4241. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-83341-7

77. Wilcox AAE , Newman AEM, Raine NE, Mitchell GW, Norris DR (2021) Effects of early-life exposure to sublethal levels of a common neonicotinoid insecticide on the orientation and migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). Journal of Experimental Biology 224: jeb230870. doi:10.1242/jeb.230870

76. Shearwood J, Aldabashi N, Eltokhy A, Franklin EL, Raine NE, Zhang C, Palmer E, Cross P, Palego C (2021) C-band telemetry of insect pollinators using a miniature transmitter and a self-piloted drone. IEEE Transactions in Microwave Theory and Techniques 69: 938-946. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2020.3034323

75. Sharkey J, Pindar A, Raine NE (2020) First Canadian record of the specialist Hibiscus Bee, Pthilothrix bombiformis (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario 151: 41-48. 

74. Franklin EL, Raine NE (2019) Moving beyond honeybee-centric pesticide risk assessments to protect all pollinators. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 1373-1375. doi:10.1038/s41559-019-0987-y

73. Chan DSW, Prosser RS, Rodríguez-Gil JL, Raine NE (2019) Assessment of risk to hoary squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa) and other ground-nesting bees from systemic insecticides in agricultural soil. Scientific Reports 9: 11870. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-47805-1

72. Pasquaretta C, Jeanson R, Pansanel J, Raine NE, Chittka L, Lihoreau M (2019) A spatial network analysis of resource partitioning between bumblebees foraging on artificial flowers in a flight cageMovement Ecology 7: 4. doi:10.1186/s40462-019-0150-z

71. Sgolastra F, Hinarejos S, Pitts-Singer TL, Boyle NK, Joseph T, Lückmann J, Raine NE, Singh R, Williams NM, Bosch J (2019) Pesticide exposure assessment paradigm for solitary beesEnvironmental Entomology 48: 22–35. doi:10.1093/ee/nvy105

70. Gradish AE, van der Steen JJM, Scott-Dupree CD, Cutler GC, Goulson D, Klein O, Lehmann DM, Lückmann J, O’Neill B, Raine NE, Sharma B, Thompson HM (2019) Comparison of pesticide exposure in honey bees and bumble bees: implications for risk assessments. Environmental Entomology 48: 12–21. doi:10.1093/ee/nvy168

69. Boyle NK, TL Pitts-Singer, J Abbott, A Alix, DL Cox-Foster, S Hinarejos, DM Lehmann, L Morandin, B O’Neill, NE Raine, R Singh, HM Thompson, NM Williams, T Steeger (2019). Workshop on pesticide exposure assessment paradigm for non-Apis bees: foundation and summaries. Environmental Entomology 48: 4–11. doi:10.1093/ee/nvy1103

68. Raine NE (2018) Pesticide affects social behavior of bees. Science 362: 643-644

67. KC KB, Dias GM, Veermani A, Swanton CJ, Fraser D, Steinke D, Lee E, Wittman H, Farber JM, Dunfield K, McCann K, Anand M, Campbell M, Rooney N, Raine NE, Van Acker R, Hanner R, Pasacoal S, Sharif S, Benton TG, Fraser EDG (2018) When too much isn’t enough: does current food production meet global nutritional needs? PLoS One 13: e0205683.

66. Raine NE (2018) An alternative to controversial pesticides still harms bumblebeesNature 561: 40-41.

65. Baron GL, Jansen VAA, Brown MJF, Raine NE (2017) Pesticide reduces bumblebee colony establishment and increases probability of population extinctionNature Ecology & Evolution 1: 1308–1316.

64. Stanley DA, Raine NE (2017) Bumblebee colony development following chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid pesticide thiamethoxam under laboratory conditionsScientific Reports 7: 8005.

63. Baron GL, Raine NE,  Brown MJF (2017) General and species-specific impacts of a neonicotinoid insecticide on the ovary development and feeding of wild bumblebee queens. Proceedings of the Royal Society – B 284: 20170123.

62. Evans LJ, Smith KE, Raine NE (2017) Fast learning in free-foraging bumble bees is negatively correlated with lifetime resource collection? Scientific Reports 7: 496.

61. Evans LJ, Raine NE, Leadbeater E (2016) Reproductive environment affects learning performance in bumble bees. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 70: 2053-2060

60. Stanley DA, Russell AL, Morrison SJ, Rogers C, Raine NE (2016) Investigating the impacts of field-realistic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide on bumblebee foraging, homing ability and colony growth. Journal of Applied Ecology 53: 1440-1449.

59. Lihoreau M, Chittka L, Raine NE (2016) Monitoring flower visitation networks and interactions between pairs of bumble bees in a large outdoor flight cage. PLoS One 11: e0150844.

58. Stanley DA, Raine NE (2016) Chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide alters the interactions between bumblebees and wild plants. Functional Ecology 30: 1132–1139. (Featured in Nature Research Highlights 531: 553).

57. Smith DB, Bernhardt G, Raine NE, Abel R, Sykes D, Ahmed F, Pedroso I, Gill RJ (2016) Exploring miniature brains using novel techniques in micro-CT scanning. Scientific Reports 6: 21768.

56. Raine NE (2016) Q&A Nigel Raine. Current Biology 26: R50-R52.

55. Cabrera AR, Almanza MT, Cutler GC, Fischer DL, Hinarejos S, Lewis G, Nigro D, Olmstead A, Overmyer J, Potter DA, Raine NE, Stanley-Stahr C, Thompson H, van der Steen JJM (2016) Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 12: 222-229.

54. Stanley DA, Garratt MPD, Wickens JB, Wickens VJ, Potts SG, Raine NE (2015) Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees. Nature 528: 548-550.

53. Stanley DA, Smith KE, Raine NE (2015) Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide. Scientific Reports 5: 16508.

52. Godfray HCJ, Blacquière T, Field LM, Hails RS, Potts SG, Raine NE, Vanbergen AJ, McLean AR (2015) A restatement of recent advances in the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators. Proceedings of the Royal Society – B 282: 20151821.

51. Raine NE, Gill RJ (2015) Tasteless pesticides affect bees in the field. Nature 521: 38-40.

50. Smith KE, Raine NE (2014) A comparison of visual and olfactory learning performance in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Behavioural Ecology & Sociobiology 68:1549–1559.

49. Godfray HCJ, Blacquière T, Field LM, Hails RS, Petrokofsky G, Potts SG, Raine NE, Vanbergen AJ, McLean AR (2014) A restatement of the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators. Proceedings of the Royal Society – B 281: 20150558.

48. Gill RJ, Raine NE (2014) Chronic impairment of natural foraging behaviour induced by sublethal pesticide exposure in bumblebees. Functional Ecology 28: 1459–1471.

47. Evans LJ, Raine NE (2014) Foraging errors play a role in resource exploration by bumble bees (Bombus terrrestris). Journal of Comparative Physiology A 200: 475-484 (Featured in Science News in depth 345: 609-610).

46. Evans LJ, Raine NE (2014) Changes in learning and foraging behaviour within developing bumble bee (Bombus terrestris) colonies. PLoS One 9: e90556.

45. Chittka L, Raine NE (2014) Bumblebee colour patterns and predation risk – a reply to Owen (2014) Journal of Zoology 292: 133-135.

44. Baron GL, Raine NE, Brown MJF (2014) Impact of chronic exposure to a pyrethroid pesticide on bumblebees and interactions with a trypanosome parasite. Journal of Applied Ecology 51: 460-469 (Featured in Nature Research Highlights 506: 134).

43. Jandt JM, Bengston S, Pinter-Wollman N, Pruitt J, Raine NE, Dornhaus A, Sih A (2014) Behavioral syndromes and social insects: personality at multiple levels. Biological Reviews 89: 48-67.

42. Bryden J, Gill RJ, Mitton RAA, Raine NE, Jansen VAA (2013) Chronic sublethal stress causes bee colony failure. Ecology Letters 16: 1463-1469 (Featured in Nature Research Highlights 502: 274).

41. Lihoreau M, Raine NE (2013) Bee positive: the importance of electroreception in pollinator cognitive ecology. Frontiers in Psychology 4: 445. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00445.

40. Vanbergen AJ, Baude M, Biesmeijer JC, Britton NF, Brown MJF, Brown M, Bryden J, Budge, GE, Bull JC, Carvell C, Challinor AJ, Connolly CN, Evans DJ, Feil EJ, Garratt MP, Greco MK, Heard MS, Jansen VAA, Keeling MJ, Kunin WE, Marris GC, Memmott J, Murray JT, Nicolson SW, Osborne JL, Paxton RJ, Pirk CWW, Polce C, Potts SG, Priest NK, Raine NE, Roberts S, Ryabov EV, Shafir S, Shirley MDF, Simpson SJ, Stevenson PC, Stone GN, Termansen M, Wright GA (2013) Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 251-259.

39. Lihoreau M, Raine NE, Reynolds AM, Stelzer RJ, Lim KA, Smith AD, Osborne JL, Chittka L (2013) Unravelling the mechanisms of trapline foraging in bees. Communicative & Integrative Biology 6: e22701.

38. Bollan KA, Hothersall JD, Moffat C, Durkacz J, Saranzewa N, Wright GA, Raine NE, Highet F, Connolly CN (2013) The microsporidian parasites Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are widespread in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies across Scotland. Parasitology Research 112: 751-759.

37. Dicks LV, Abrahams A, Atkinson J, Biesmeijer J, Bourn N, Brown C, Brown MJF, Carvell C, Connolly C, Cresswell JE, Croft P, Darvill B, de Zylva P, Effingham P, Fountain M, Goggin A, Harding D, Harding T, Hartfield C, Heard MS, Heathcote R, Heaver D, Holland J, Howe M, Hughes B, Huxley T, Kunin WE, Little J, Mason C, Memmott J, Osborne J, Pankhurst T, Paxton RJ, Pocock MJO, Potts SG, Power EF, Raine NE, Ranelagh E, Roberts S, Saunders R, Smith K, Smith RM, Sutton P, Tilley LAN, Tinsley A, Tonhasca A, Vanbergen AJ, Webster S, Wilson A, Sutherland WJ (2013) Identifying key knowledge needs for evidence-based conservation of wild insect pollinators: a collaborative cross-sectoral exercise. Insect Conservation & Diversity 6: 435–446.

36. Gill RJ, Ramos-Rodríguez O, Raine NE (2012) Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees. Nature 491: 105-108.

35. Lihoreau M, Raine NE, Reynolds AM, Stelzer RJ, Lim KA, Smith AD, Osborne JL, Chittka L (2012) Radar tracking and motion-sensitive cameras on flowers reveal the development of pollinator multi-destination routes over large spatial scales. PLoS Biology 10: e1001392.

34. Lihoreau M, Chittka L, Le Comber SC, Raine NE (2012) Bees do not use nearest-neighbour rules for optimization of multi-location routes. Biology Letters 8: 13-16.

33. Raine NE, Chittka L (2012) No trade-off between learning speed and associative flexibility in bumblebees: a reversal learning test with multiple colonies. PLoS One 7: e45096.

32. Lihoreau M, Chittka L, Raine NE (2011) Trade-off between travel distance and prioritization of high-reward sites in traplining bumblebees. Functional Ecology 25: 1284–1292.

31. Lihoreau M, Chittka L, Raine NE (2010) Travel optimization by foraging bumblebees through re-adjustments of traplines after discovery of new flower patches. American Naturalist 176: 744-757.

30. Stelzer RJ, Raine NE, Schmitt KD, Chittka L (2010) Effects of aposematic colouration on predation risk in bumblebees? A comparison between differently coloured populations, with consideration of the ultraviolet. Journal of Zoology 282: 75-83.

29. Raine NE (2009) Cognitive ecology: environmental dependence of the fitness costs of learning. Current Biology 19: R486-R488.

28. Willmer PG, Nuttman CV, Raine NE, Stone GN, Pattrick JG, Henson K, Stillman P, McIlroy L, Potts SG, Knudsen JT (2009) Floral volatiles controlling ant behaviour. Functional Ecology 23: 888-900.

27. Chittka L, Skorupski P, Raine NE (2009) Speed-accuracy tradeoffs in animal decision making. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24: 400-407.

26. Ings TC, Raine NE, Chittka L (2009) A population comparison of the strength and persistence of innate colour preference and learning speed in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 63: 1207-1218.

25. Lopez-Vaamonde C, Raine NE, Koning JW, Brown RM, Pereboom JJM, Ings TC, Ramos-Rodríguez O, Jordan WC, Bourke AFG (2009) Lifetime reproductive success and longevity of queens in an annual social insect. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22: 983-996.

24. Molet M, Chittka L, Raine NE (2009) Potential application of the bumblebee foraging recruitment pheromone for commercial greenhouse pollination. Apidologie 40: 608-616.

23. Raine NE, DK Rossmo, Le Comber SC (2009) Geographic profiling applied to testing models of bumblebee foraging. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 6: 307-319.

22. Alghamdi A, Raine NE, Rosato E, Mallon EB (2009) No evidence for an evolutionary trade-off between learning and immunity in a social insect. Biology Letters 5: 55-57.

21. Molet M, Chittka L, Raine NE (2009) How floral odours are learned inside the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) nest. Naturwissenschaften 96: 213-219. Featured in Nature Research Highlights 456: 144.

20. Raine NE, Chittka L (2008) The correlation of learning speed and natural foraging success in bumble-bees. Proceedings of the Royal Society – B 275: 803-808.

19. Molet M, Chittka L, Stelzer RJ, Streit S, Raine NE (2008) Colony nutritional status modulates worker responses to foraging recruitment pheromone in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 62: 1919-1926.

18. Raine NE, Chittka L (2007) The adaptive significance of sensory bias in a foraging context: floral colour preferences in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. PLoS One 2: e556.

17. Raine NE, Pierson AS, Stone GN (2007) Plant-pollinator interactions in a Mexican Acacia community. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 1: 101-117.

16. Raine NE, Chittka L (2007) Pollen foraging: learning a complex motor skill by bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Naturwissenschaften 94: 459-464.

15. Raine NE, Chittka L (2007) Nectar production rates of 75 bumblebee-visited flower species in a German flora (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus terrestris). Entomologia Generalis 30: 191-192.

14. Raine NE, Chittka L (2007) Flower constancy and memory dynamics in bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus). Entomologia Generalis 29: 179-199.

13. Chittka L, Raine NE (2006) Recognition of flowers by pollinators. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 9: 428-435.

12. Raine NE, Ings TC, Dornhaus A, Saleh N, Chittka L (2006) Adaptation, genetic drift, pleiotropy, and history in the evolution of bee foraging behavior. Advances in the Study of Behavior 36: 305-354.

11. Leadbeater E, Raine NE, Chittka L (2006) Social learning: ants and the meaning of teaching. Current Biology 16: R323-R325.

10. Raine NE, Ings TC, Ramos-Rodríguez O, Chittka L (2006) Intercolony variation in learning performance of a wild British bumblebee population (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus terrestris audax). Entomologia Generalis 28: 241-256.

9. Raine NE, Chittka L (2005) Colour preferences in relation to the foraging performance and fitness of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Uludag Bee Journal 5: 145-150.

8. Ings TC, Raine NE, Chittka L (2005) Mating preference of commercially imported bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in Britain (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologia Generalis 28: 233-238.

7. Raine NE, Chittka L (2005) Comparison of flower constancy and foraging performance in three bumblebee species (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus). Entomologia Generalis 28: 81-89.

6. Jensen AB, Palmer KA, Châline N, Raine NE, Tofilski A, Martin, SJ, Pedersen BV, Boomsma JJ, Ratnieks FLW (2005) Quantifying honey bee mating range and isolation in semi-isolated valleys by DNA microsatellite paternity analysis. Conservation Genetics 6: 527-537.

5. Chittka L, Ings TC, Raine NE (2004) Chance and adaptation in the evolution of island bumblebee behaviour. Population Ecology 46: 243-251.

4. Raine NE, Gammans N, MacFadyen IJ, Scrivner GK, Stone GN (2004) Guards versus thieves: antagonistic interactions between two ant species coexisting on the same ant-plant. Ecological Entomology 29: 345-352.

3. Châline N, Ratnieks FLW, Raine NE, Badcock NS, Burke T (2004) Non-lethal sampling of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, DNA using wing tips. Apidologie 35: 311-318.

2. Stone GN, Raine NE, Prescott M, Willmer PG (2003) The pollination ecology of Acacias (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae). Australian Systematic Botany 16: 103-118.

1. Raine NE, Stone GN, Willmer PG (2002) Spatial structuring and floral avoidance behavior prevent ant-pollinator conflict in a Mexican ant-acacia. Ecology 83: 3086-3096.

Preprint Articles

8. Rondeau S, Baert N, McArt S, Raine NE (2020) Quantifying exposure of bumblebee (Bombus spp.) queens to pesticide residues when hibernating in agricultural soilsbioRxiv doi:10.1101/2022.05.10.491216

7. Pindar A, Hogg A, Raine NE (2020) Safeguarding pollinators requires specific habitat prescriptions and substantially more land area than current policy suggests. bioRxiv doi:10.1101/2020.12.14.422715

6. Chan DSW, Raine NE (2020) Neonicotinoid exposure affects foraging, nesting, and reproductive success of ground-nesting solitary bees. bioRxiv doi:10.1101/2020.10.07.330605

5. Mundy-Heisz KA, Prosser RS, Raine NE  (2020) Acute oral toxicity and risks of exposure to the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, and other classes of systemic insecticide, for the Common Eastern Bumblebee (Bombus impatiens). bioRxiv doi:10.1101/2020.01.27.921510

4. Wilcox AAE, Newman AEM, Raine NE, Norris DR  (2020) Captive-reared migratory monarch butterflies show natural orientation when released in the wild. bioRxiv doi:10.1101/2020.1101.1124.919027

3. Mundy K, Raine NE (2018) A comparison of acute toxicity methodologies for Bombus spp. PeerJ Preprints 6: e27436v1. doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.27436v1

2. Chan DSW, Prosser RS, Rodríguez-Gil JL, Raine NE (2018) Risks of exposure to systemic insecticides in agricultural soil in Ontario, Canada for the hoary squash bee (Peponapis pruinosa) and other ground-nesting bee species. bioRxiv 434498. doi:10.1101/434498

1. Raine NE, Chittka L (2007) Bumblebees gain fitness through learning. Nature Precedings hdl:10101/npre.12007.11298.10101

Book Chapters

Raine NE, Chittka L (2009) Measuring the adaptiveness of social insect foraging strategies – an empirical approach. pp. 9-28 in Hrncir M & S Jarau (eds). Food Exploitation by Social Insects: Ecological, Behavioral, and Theoretical Approaches. CRC Press.

Eltringham KS, Cooksey IA, Dixon WJB, Raine NE, Sheldrick CJ, McWilliam NM, Packer MJ (1999) Large mammals of Mkomazi. pp. 485-504 in Coe M et al. (eds). Mkomazi: the Ecology, Diversity and Conservation of a Tanzanian Savanna. Royal Geographical Society.

Book Reviews

  1. Raine NE (2007) Book Review of Practical Pollination Biology. Kevan PG et al. (eds). Entomologia Generalis 29: 148.
  2. Raine NE (2005) Book Review of Arthropods of Tropical Forests. Basset Y et al. (eds). Animal Conservation 8: 347.
  3. Raine NE (2001) Book Review of Behaviour and Conservation. Morris-Gosling L & WJ Sutherland (eds). Animal Conservation 4: 89-90.


14. Sage Handler (2022) Welcome to the Hotel Hymenoptera: monitoring cavity-nesting bee and wasp distribution and interactions across Canada using community science and DNA barcoding. MSc thesis, University of Guelph.

13. Emily M Agar (2021) Investigating the relative impacts of environmental stressors on wild bee community composition in Pennsylvania through an analysis of historical records. MSc thesis, University of Guelph.

12. Kayla A Mundy-Heisz (2021) Pressure on pollinators: an examination of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) and systemic insecticides, parasites, and agricultural habitats. PhD thesis, University of Guelph.

11. D Susan Willis Chan (2020) Where wild meets cultivated: implications of the close association between the Hoary Squash Bee (Eucera (Peponapis) pruinosa (Say, 1837)) and Cucurbita crops in Ontario, Canada. PhD thesis, University of Guelph.

10. Leah Blechschmidt (2020) Investigating the benefits of natural habitats and farmland heterogeneity for the diversity and abundance of insect pollinators in southern Ontario. MSc thesis, University of Guelph. 

9. Ellen Richard (2019) The underestimated taxa: the role of non-bee pollinators in temperate vegetable crops, experimental research in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) crops. MSc thesis, University of Guelph. Co-supervised with Dr. Dirk Steinke.

8. Claire Rubens (2019) Changes in composition and structure of a wild bee community and plant-pollinator interactions in South-Central Ontario over a forty-nine year period. MSc thesis, University of Guelph.

7. Harry Rusnock (2019) The variability and adaptive value of visual learning performance in wild and domesticated colonies of the common eastern bumblebee, Bombus impatiens. MSc thesis, University of Guelph.

6. Karen E Smith (2015) Causes and consequences of variation in learning performance in the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris). PhD thesis, Royal Holloway University of London.

5. Gemma L Baron (2015) The synergistic effects of pesticides and parasites on bee behaviour and fitness. PhD thesis, Royal Holloway University of London. Co-supervised with Prof. Mark JF Brown.

4. Lisa J Evans (2014) Intracolony differences in learning performance and their effects on foraging behaviour and success in bumble bees. PhD thesis, Royal Holloway University of London.

3. Dylan B Smith (2013) The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on learning, memory and brain structure in the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris). MSc thesis, Royal Holloway University of London. Awarded with Distinction.

2. Robert AA Mitton (2012) The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on the onset of foraging in the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris). MSc thesis, Royal Holloway University of London. Awarded with Distinction.

1. Nigel E Raine (2001) The Pollination Ecology of a Mexican Acacia Community. D.Phil. thesis, Department of Zoology and Magdalen College, University of Oxford. Supervisors. Prof. Graham N Stone & Dr. George C McGavin.